Eintracht Frankfurt’s Goetze, 30, who scored the winning goal in the 2014 World Cup final, has not played for Germany since a friendly against France in November 2017.
Bayern Munich teammates Manuel Neuer and Thomas Muller will be playing in their fourth World Cup.
Youssoufa Moukoko, Borussia Dortmund’s 17-year-old striker, is also included.
Moukoko and Werder Bremen’s Niclas Fullkrug, who has scored 10 goals in 13 Bundesliga games this season, have both been called up for the first time.
Goalkeepers: Manuel Neuer (Bayern Munich), Marc-Andre ter Stegen (Barcelona), Kevin Trapp (Eintracht Frankfurt)
Defenders: Armel Bella-Kotchap (Southampton), Matthias Ginter (SC Freiburg), Christian Gunter (SC Freiburg), Thilo Kehrer (West Ham), Lukas Klostermann (RB Leipzig), David Raum (RB Leipzig), Antonio Rudiger (Real Madrid), Nico Schlotterbeck (Borussia Dortmund), Niklas Sule (Borussia Dortmund)
Midfielders: Julian Brandt (Borussia Dortmund), Leon Goretzka (Bayern Munich), Ilkay Gundogan (Manchester City), Jonas Hofmann (RB Leipzig), Joshua Kimmich (Bayern Munich), Jamal Musiala (Bayern Munich)
Forwards: Karim Adeyemi (Borussia Dortmund), Niclas Fullkrug (Werder Bremen), Serge Gnabry (Bayern Munich), Mario Gotze (Eintracht Frankfurt), Kai Havertz (Chelsea), Youssoufa Moukoko (Borussia Dortmund), Thomas Muller (Bayern Munich), Leroy Sane (Bayern Munich)